Datos del huracán María

El Instituto de Estadísticas de Puerto Rico creó esta sección sobre datos del Huracán María con el propósito de proveer una plataforma para la aglomeración de datos confiables para antes, durante y después del paso del huracán sobre Puerto Rico.De esta manera, desde un solo portal electrónico se pueda acceder la información que han estado produciendo las dependencias locales, estatales y federales, así también como diversas instituciones interesadas sobre el tema. Continuamente estaremos añadiendo información en esta sección.


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Estudios sobre el Impacto Económico y Social del Huracán María


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Estimates of Post-Hurricane Maria Exodus from Puerto Rico Meléndez, E. & Hinojosa, J. / The Center for Puerto Rican Studies 10/1/2017 Hurricane Maria’s impact on Puerto Rico and its population is unprecedented. Though it is difficult to find comparable situations, we estimate that between 114,000 and 213,000 Puerto Rico residents will leave the island annually in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria. From 2017 to 2019, we estimate that Puerto Rico may lose up to 470,335 residents or 14% of the population. In other words, Puerto Rico will lose the same population in a span of a couple of years after Hurricane Maria as the island lost during a prior decade of economic stagnation. Our projections indicate that Florida is the state most likely to be affected by the exodus — with an estimated annual flow of between 40,000 and 82,000 people.


Preliminary Estimate: Cost of Damages by Hurricane María in Puerto Rico Estudios Técnicos, Inc. 10/6/2017 This report provides an initial measurement of estimated damages and partial lost revenues caused by hurricane Maria. Two methodologies were used for the total damage assessment: Research by the International Monetary Fund that provided measurements of damages from wind speed as percent of GDP; and extrapolation of damages recorded in Puerto Rico after hurricane Georges in 1998. Preliminary_Estimate_Cost_of_Maria
The view from Puerto Rico-Hurricane Maria and its aftermath Carmen D. Zorrilla, M.D. / The New England Journal of Medicine 10/11/2017 Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico on September 20 and caused unprecedented damage affecting the island’s 3.4 million inhabitants. Though no one in Puerto Rico was spared at least some impact, the poor and vulnerable were disproportionately affected. Loss of communication and electricity, scarcity of water, isolation of some residents, slow coordination of the aid that has been sent, and the magnitude and scope of the necessary repairs all merit a call for help from and the engagement of the global community. Indeed, Puerto Ricans and U.S. Virgin Islanders are U.S. citizens and expect the same federal aid and support during natural disasters as the rest of the United States. nejmp1713196.pdf
Preliminary Locations of Landslide Impacts from Hurricane Maria, Puerto Rico Erin K. Bessette-Kirton, Jeffrey A. Coe, Jonathan W. Godt, Jason W. Kean, Francis K. Rengers, William H. Schulz, Rex L. Baum, Eric S. Jones, and Dennis M. Staley 10/25/2017 This data release presents geospatial data describing the concentration of landslides generated by Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico. We used post-hurricane satellite and aerial imagery collected between September 26, 2017 and October 8, 2017 to visually estimate the concentration of landslides over nearly the whole territory. This was done by dividing the territory into a grid with 4 square km cells (2 km x 2 km). Each 4 square km grid cell was classified as either containing no landslides, fewer than 25 landslides/square km or more than 25 landslides/square km. We used 12 WorldView satellite images (~0.5 m-resolution) available from Digital Globe, Inc. and ~0.15 m-resolution aerial imagery collected by Sanborn and QuantumSpatial (http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=b1949283c1084b0daf2987d896392ac2). We identified landslides by locating areas with exposed soil or rock and morphology typical of landslides. Because leaves were stripped from much of the vegetation, landslide scars were readily visible in both sources of imagery. We assume that the majority of landslides were triggered by rainfall from Hurricane Maria, but rainfall from Hurricane Irma during the first week of September and rainfall from thunderstorms after Hurricane Maria may have also initiated landslides. Preliminary Locations of Landslide Impacts from Hurricane Maria, Puerto Rico
Repair or Rebuild: Options for Electric Power in Puerto Rico Congressional Research Service 11/16/2017 This report explores several alternative electric power structures to PREPA for meeting the electricity services and needs of Puerto Rico. The ability of Puerto Rico and its citizens to assume the burden of paying for a rebuilt (and possibly restructured) electricity system is doubtful. Modernizing Puerto Rico’s grid, and taking the next steps to incorporate resiliency, could be expensive. None of the options discussed provides a silver bullet solution to the issues of the grid in Puerto Rico. Congress may consider whether the efforts to restore electric power in Puerto Rico need to progress beyond simple restoration of electricity, and require new investment and oversight by the federal government. R45023.pdf
Post-Disaster Needs Assessment Hurricane Maria September 18, 2017: A Report by the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica Commonwealth of Dominica 11/19/2017 On October 9, 2017, the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica presented an official request for a Post-Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA), coordinated by the World Bank in conjunction with the United Nations, Eastern Caribbean Central Bank, the Caribbean Development Bank, and the European Union to assess the disaster impact to inform recovery and reconstruction needs. The main objective of the PDNA is to produce a reliable estimate of the disaster effects and impact of Hurricane Maria, and define a strategy for recovery. Specifically, the assessment aims to: (i) quantify damages and losses, including physical damages and socio-economic aspects; (ii) evaluate the overall impact of the disaster on the macro-economic and human development context of a country; and, (iii) identify recovery needs, priorities, and costs for a resilient recovery strategy. DOMINICA-EXECUTIVE-SUMMARY
Estimates of excess deaths in Puerto Rico following Hurricane Maria Santos, A. & Jeffrey T. Howard 11/21/2017 BACKGROUND: This descriptive finding examines excess deaths following Hurricane María, in Puerto Rico for September and October 2017. OBJECTIVE: We seek to determine the degree of excess deaths in Puerto Rico based on historical patterns of variability in deaths by month for the 2010-2016 period and using estimation techniques. METHODS: Data for this study come from death records from the Puerto Rico Vital Statistics system. We aggregated data by month and year (2010-2016) and produced means (expected deaths) and 95% confidence intervals (C.I., or patterns of variability) for each month. Using public statements from the Puerto Rico Department of Public Safety, we estimate the number of deaths for September and October 2017 and compare it to the level of expected deaths considering the pattern of variability. RESULTS: Expected deaths for September and October were 2,383 (95% C.I. 2,296-2,469) and 2,428 (95% C.I. 2,380 - 2,476), respectively. Estimates for total deaths, for September and October 2017 were 2,987 (95% CI 2,900-3,074) and 3,043 (95% C.I. 2,995-3,091), respectively. The difference between our estimates and the upper 95% CI for the average deaths is 518 deaths for September and 567 deaths for October. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality burden may higher than official counts, and may exceed the current official death toll by a factor of 10 or more. Excess mortality due to Hurricane Maria to be measured using a simple method
The Impact of Hurricane Maria on Puerto Rico's Children: Analysis and Initial Recommendations Rivera, A. & Arroyo, C. / Youth Development Institute of Puerto Rico 12/1/2017 The Youth Development Institute of Puerto Rico (Instituto del Desarrollo de la Juventud) is a nonprofit organization working to advance public policies- at both the federal and commonwealth level- that improve the lives and outcomes of children and youth in Puerto Rico. Our work includes the collection dissemination of data; the development of research-driven public policy recommendations; and advocacy work that is driven by both data and people. We are the only organization focused on policy and advocacy around children’s issues in Puerto Rico. 86104
Build Back Better: Reimagining and Strengthening the Power Grid of Puerto Rico New York Power Authority, Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, Puerto Rico Energy Commission, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc., Edison International, Electric Power Research Institute, Long Island Power Authority, Smart Electric Power Alliance, US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Grid Modernization Lab Consortium, and PSEG Long Island, an agent for and on behalf of the Long Island Lighting Company d/b/a LIPA, and Navigant Consulting, Inc. 12/11/2017 The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the electric power system storm damage, describe a new system design basis, and propose rebuild recommendations for the Puerto Rico Power and Grid Resiliency rebuild initiative. This report is positioned to support the Puerto Rico Governor’s Office, Electric Power Authority, interested stakeholder agencies, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in defining first level funding requirements and electric power system rebuild recommendations. PRERWG_Report_PR_Grid_Resiliency_Report.pdf
Maria in Puerto Rico: Natural Disaster in a Colonial Archipelago Carlos E. Rodríguez-Díaz / American Journal of Public Health 1/1/2018 September 20, 2018 marked a year since hurricane Maria wrought havoc on the island of Puerto Rico. Though the media has reported the crisis in a myriad of ways –for better or worse– the intention here is to provide a timeline of the major occurrences in the aftermath, a meta-analysis of the media’s coverage of the disaster, and an updated account of the exodus of people. The island continues to suffer from a tenuous electric grid, ruined infrastructure, and financial bankruptcy a year after the hurricane; the increase in migratory numbers reflects the limitations that many continue to face on the island. More importantly, the island’s population continues to decline, and as a result, many schools have been closed, small businesses experienced financial losses, and death rates exceeded birth rates for the first time in history. AJPH.2017.304198
200,000 residencias en zonas inundables Junta de Planificación de Puerto Rico 1/24/2018 La Junta de Planificación informó que, de acuerdo con estimados realizados en coordinación con la Agencia Federal para el Manejo de Emergencia (FEMA, por sus siglas en inglés) unas 200,000 propiedades ubican dentro de las zonas inundables, regulatorias, identificadas en los mapas de tasas del seguro de inundación. CP- residencias en zonas inundables-.pdf
Regulation on Microgrid Development of the Puerto Rico Energy Commission. Puerto Rico Energy Commission January 2018 The Puerto Rico Energy Commission adopts and enacts this Regulation to assist in the development of microgrids throughout Puerto Rico. The prolonged outages and its impacts on the citizens of Puerto Rico caused by Hurricanes Irma and Maria highlights the need to foster the creation of microgrids as a means of delivering energy services to customers in need, while integrating new technology and industry trends into Puerto Rico’s energy market. Proposed-Regulation-on-Microgrid-Development-CEPR-MI-2018-0001-2.pdf
Estimating the death toll of Hurricane Maria Rivera, R. & Rolke, W./ Significance Magazine 2/15/2018 Puerto Rican authorities report only 64 deaths from Hurricane Maria, the worst storm to hit the island in nearly a century But statistical estimates point to many more victims. Maria Deaths - Significance
Informe sobre el Impacto Económico del Huracán María Junta de Planificación de Puerto Rico 3/9/2018 Informe preliminar que presenta un trasfondo histórico de los eventos atmosféricos que han azotado la Isla, los avances en la recuperación de los servicios que brindan los diferentes sectores económicos y el estimado del impacto del huracán María en la economía por sector industrial. El mismo recoge los estimados de gastos y daños sometidos por las agencias, corporaciones públicas, municipios y las solicitudes hechas por el sector privado al gobierno federal y sus reclamaciones a las aseguradoras. Adicional, se realiza un estimado por sector industrial de los gastos incurridos y las pérdidas de ingresos en el sector privado por el período de tiempo que se calcula llevaban sin poder operar. H_Progress-Report-on-the-Impact-of-Hurricane-Maria-on-the-Economy-of-Puerto-Rico
Rebuilding Puerto Rico’s Power Grid: The Inside Story Maria Gallucci / IEEE Spectrum 3/12/2018 Electricity may be fully restored this May—but the hard work of hurricane-proofing the grid remains. rebuilding-puerto-ricos-power-grid-the-inside-story
Research Brief: Puerto Rican Post-Maria Relocation by States Hinojosa, J.; Román, N.; Meléndez, E. / The Center for Puerto Rican Studies March 2018 This research brief presents findings of the relocation of Puerto Ricans to the U.S. mainland as a result of aftermath of Hurricane Maria. Data from FEMA and school enrollment data from the selected state’s Department of Education were used to analyze Puerto Rican relocation patterns in the U.S. mainland. Prior estimates of the magnitude of this exodus have been based on movement of passengers or statistical projections based on recent migration trends from Puerto Rico to the United States. Schoolenroll-v4-27-2018.pdf
Puerto Rico Post-Maria Report The Center for Puerto Rican Studies March 2018 Hurricane Maria was the worst storm to hit Puerto Rico since San Felipe Segundo in 1928. On September 20, 2017, Hurricane Maria struck Puerto Rico as a Category 4 storm, with sustained winds blowing at 145 mph and peaking at 155 mph as it made landfall. Researchers from the Climate Impact Lab described the storm as a 1-in-3,000 event, which is reflected in the severity of the potential long-term economic impact. puerto_rico_post_maria-2018-final
National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Maria Pasch, R., Penny, A. & Berg, R. / National Hurricane Center 4/10/2018 Maria was a very severe Cape Verde Hurricane that ravaged the island of Dominica at category 5 (on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale) intensity, and later devastated Puerto Rico as a high-end category 4 hurricane. It also inflicted serious damage on some of the other islands of the northeastern Caribbean Sea. Maria is the third costliest hurricane in United States history. AL152017_Maria
After the Storms: Lessons from Hurricane Response and Recovery in 2017 David Inserra, Justin Bogie, Diane Katz, Salim Furth, PhD, Monica Burke, Katie Tubb, Nicolas D. Loris, and Steven P. Bucci / The Heritage Foundation 4/16/2018 In 2017, three highly destructive hurricanes —Harvey, Irma, and Maria— brought consecutive waves of damage and destruction. This report examines the U.S. responses—what went well and what needs to be improved. Ultimately, the U.S. needs to improve its preparation and budgeting for disasters, and ensure economic flexibility to better recover from disasters. Policymakers should not forget the importance of local assets, such as the National Guard and civil society and faith-based organizations, that are essential to long-term recovery. SR-201
La vulnerabilidad ante el desastre: características sociodemográficas de la población ubicada en la ruta del huracán María Galán, C., Ro-dríguez, L., Medina, L., Guevarez, M., Lugo, R., y León, L. / Centro de Investigación Demográfica, Programa de Demografía, Escuela Graduada de Salud Pública, Recinto de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Puerto Rico April 18-20, 2018 A pesar de que el impacto del huracán María fue sentido en todo Puerto Rico, no todas las personas fueron afectadas de la misma manera. Las características demográficas de una población, afectada por un desastre natural, pueden aumentar el potencial de riesgo que ésta experimentara ante el evento, haciéndolas más vulnerables; en particular cuando este tipo de evento afecta a grupos menos privilegiados. Poster La vulnerabilidad ante el desastre huracan Maria Centro de Investigaciones Demográficas EGSP Foro RCM 2018
Response and Recovery After María: Lessons for Disaster Law and Policy Daniel Farber / Revista Jurídica / Universidad de Puerto Rico 5/6/2018 Hurricane Maria had a devastating impact on Puerto Rico. The federal response to Maria was slow, leaving much of the population without basic necessities for extended periods. Lives were lost as a result. The federal government failed to rise to the challenges posed by logistic difficulties and strained agency resources due to preceding disasters. The response was hindered by unrealistic planning, by Puerto Rico’s lack of political power in Washington, and by presidential indifference. In the end, despite its much greater needs, Puerto Rico received assistance much more slowly than Houston. This article analyzes the reasons for the flawed response and proposes improvements in future disaster policy. Like Katrina, Maria is a story of how systems failed just when they were most needed by our most vulnerable citizens. 04-Disaster-law-and-policy-1
Mortality in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria Nishant Kishore, Domingo Marqués, Ayesha Mahmud, Mathew V. Kiang, Irmary Rodriguez, Arlan Fuller, Peggy Ebner, Cecilia Sorensen, Fabio Racy, Jay Lemery, Leslie Maas, Jennifer Leaning, Rafael A. Irizarry, Satchit Balsari & Caroline O. Buckee / New England Journal of Medicine 5/29/2018 Quantifying the effect of natural disasters on society is critical for recovery of public health services and infrastructure. The death toll can be difficult to assess in the aftermath of a major disaster. In September 2017, Hurricane Maria caused massive infrastructural damage to Puerto Rico, but its effect on mortality remains contentious. nejmsa1803972
The Housing Crisis in Puerto Rico and the Impact of Hurricane Maria Meléndez, E. & Hinojosa, J. / The Center for Puerto Rican Studies 6/1/2018 By all counts, Puerto Rico’s housing market is in a deep and prolonged crisis. At least eighteen (18) percent of Puerto Rico’s housing stock is vacant as a result of the island’s prolonged economic recession, which commenced in 2006, and the spike in foreclosures after Hurricane Maria suggests that vacant units are increasing at an accelerated rate. Puerto Rico’s economic recession led to depopulation and the loss of jobs, which induced a decline of home equity values and an increase in foreclosures. More recently, Puerto Rico’s housing stock has been damaged due to Hurricane Maria, which devastated the island on September 20, 2017. HousingPuertoRico
Transformación e innovación luego de la devastación: un plan de recuperación económica y de desastres para Puerto Rico Autoridad para las Alianzas Público-Privadas de Puerto Rico / Oficina Central de Recuperación, Reconstrucción y Resiliencia 7/2/2018 El Gobernador de Puerto Rico comparte este plan económico y de recuperación de desastres de acuerdo con su visión: Construir el nuevo Puerto Rico que satisfaga las necesidades actuales y futuras de las personas a través del desarrollo económico sostenible y la transformación social; enfoques de gobernabilidad transparentes e innovadores; infraestructura moderna y resistente y de última generación; y una sociedad segura, educada, saludable y sostenible. puertorico-recovery-plan-espanol
Informe ReImagina Puerto Rico Comisión Asesora para un Puerto Rico Resiliente 7/31/2018 Los eventos catastróficos ocasionados por el paso de los huracanes Irma y María, en septiembre de 2017, generaron un reclamo colectivo para repensar a Puerto Rico, mientras se avanza en la recuperación y reconstrucción del país. Este proceso no debe centrarse únicamente en reemplazar la infraestructura obsoleta, debe también fomentar una transformación social y económica para forjar una sociedad más justa, equitativa y resiliente en toda la Isla. Entre los numerosos esfuerzos de recuperación surgidos tras la emergencia, fue creada la Comisión Asesora para un Puerto Rico Resiliente para servir como una fuerza unificadora entre un grupo diverso de voces puertorriqueñas. RePR_INFORMEGENERAL_ESP_WEB_09212018
Challenges and Opportunities After Hurricane Maria: University of Puerto Rico Medical Students’ Perspectives Nicole Yordan-Lopez, Dagmar F. Hernandez-Suarez, William Marrero-Ortiz, Lorraine Marshall-Perez, Angel Lopez-Candales / Journal of Graduate Medical Education 8/1/2018 Medical students, along with residents and fellows, experienced a unique set of challenges and opportunities that differed from the rest of the population. During the storm, most of the island’s hospitals were left without electricity, and many were without fuel for their generators. Four days after the hurricane, only three (3) major hospitals were functioning. One was the University District Hospital at the Puerto Rico Medical Center, where most of the clinical rotations of the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine take place. JGME-D-17-01024.1
Hurricane Maria in the U.S. Caribbean: Disturbance Forces, Variation of Effects, and Implications for Future Storms Van-Beusekom, A.; Alvarez-Berríos, N.; Gould, W.; Quiñones, M.; González, G. / Remote Sensing. 10(9) 8/31/2018 The impact of Hurricane Maria on the U.S. Caribbean was used to study the causes of remotely-sensed spatial variation in the effects of (1) vegetation index loss and (2) landslide occurrence. The vegetation index is a measure of canopy ‘greenness’, a combination of leaf chlorophyll, leaf area, canopy cover and structure. A generalized linear model was made for each kind of effect, using idealized maps of the hurricane forces, along with three landscape characteristics that were significantly associated. In each model, one of these characteristics was forest fragmentation, and another was a measure of disturbance-propensity. For the greenness loss model, the hurricane force was wind, the disturbance-propensity measure was initial greenness, and the third landscape characteristic was fraction forest cover. For the landslide occurrence model, the hurricane force was rain, the disturbance-propensity measure was amount of land slope, and the third landscape characteristic was soil clay content. The model of greenness loss had a pseudo R2 of 0.73 and showed the U.S. Caribbean lost 31% of its initial greenness from the hurricane, with 51% lost from the initial in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) from Hurricane Maria along with Hurricane Irma. More greenness disturbance was seen in areas with less wind sheltering, higher elevation and topographic sides. The model of landslide occurrence had a pseudo R2 of 0.53 and showed the U.S. Caribbean had 34% of its area and 52% of the LEF area with a landslide density of at least one in 1 km2 from Hurricane Maria. Four experiments with parameters from previous storms of wind speed, storm duration, rainfall, and forest structure over the same storm path and topographic landscape were run as examples of possible future scenarios. While intensity of the storm makes by far the largest scenario difference, forest fragmentation makes a sizable difference especially in vulnerable areas of high clay content or high wind susceptibility. This study showed the utility of simple hurricane force calculations connected with landscape characteristics and remote-sensing data to determine forest susceptibility to hurricane effects. ja_iitf_2018_vanbeusekom.pdf
Views and Experiences of Puerto Ricans One Year After Hurricane Maria Bianca DiJulio, Cailey Muñana & Mollyann Brodie / Kaiser Family Foundation 9/1/2018 Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico on September 20, 2017 as a category 4 storm causing significant destruction across the U.S. territory leaving people with damaged homes, limited access to food and water, and in the dark due to massive power failures. Since the hurricane hit, news reports have described the far-reaching consequences of the storm, but data on how widespread some issues are has been lacking. In order to give voice to the people of Puerto Rico and to quantify the current status of the situation nearly one year after the storm’s devastation, the Kaiser Family Foundation and The Washington Post conducted an in-person representative survey in July and August 2018 of current adult residents of Puerto Rico who endured the storm nearly a year earlier. The survey explores Puerto Ricans’ experiences after the storm, their ongoing needs, and their views of rebuilding priorities going forward. Report-Views-and-Experiences-of-Puerto-Ricans-One-Year-After-Hurricane-Maria
Post-Hurricane Vital Statistics Expose Fragility of Puerto Rico’s Health System Rolando J. Acosta & Rafael A. Irizarry 9/5/2018 Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico on September 20, 2017. As recently as May of this year (2018), the official death count was 64. After a study describing a household survey reported a much higher death count estimate, as well as evidence of population displacement, extensive loss of services, and a prolonged death rate the government released death registry data. These newly released data will permit a better understanding of the effects of this hurricane. 407874.full.pdf
Imaging Disaster: Puerto Rico through the Eye of Hurricane María Lloréns, Hilda / American Anthropological Association 9/24/2018 During Hurricane María, individuals throughout the Caribbean uploaded video and photographs to social media, but as winds downed communication towers and electric lines, sharing stopped. Still, satellites orbiting high above Earth transmitted views of the massive hurricane. In the following weeks, the media bombarded viewers with scenes of devastated landscapes, people wading through waist‐deep water, infrastructure shredded beyond recognition, apocalyptic desolation, and desperation. Media portrayals focused on a “powerless” people, literally without electrical power, further reduced into social, economic, and political powerlessness. This article combines ethnographic elicitation with cultural analysis to understand how images of trauma and suffering affect diverse audiences. Do these images compel viewers to fight for justice or do they desensitize them? Do they lead people toward feelings of pessimism, resignation, and cynicism? The autor explores how people's backgrounds and relationships to specific places inform the ways they are even able to look at, grapple with, and work through traumatic images. She demonstrates how long‐term prejudice is imbedded into the media's imagery and representations of Hurricane María to show how associated governmental neglect exacerbates the trauma of disaster. Lastly, the autor engage with the place of responsibility and sorrow as she raise the question of how the specter of future natural disasters haunts the current state of devastation. traa.12126
Differential and persistent risk of excess mortality from Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico: a time-series analysis Carlos Santos-Burgoa, John Sandberg, Erick Suárez, Ann Goldman-Hawes, Scott Zeger, Alejandra Garcia-Meza, Cynthia M. Pérez, Noel Estrada-Merly, Uriyoan Colón-Ramos, Cruz María Nazario, Elizabeth Andrade, Amira Roess, Lynn Goldman / The Lancet Planetary Health 10/11/2018 Hurricane Maria struck Puerto Rico on Sept 20, 2017, devastating the island. Controversy surrounded the official death toll, fuelled by estimates of excess mortality from academics and investigative journalists. We analysed all-cause excess mortality following the storm. 1-s2.0-S2542519618302092-main.pdf
Actualización Impacto Económico del Huracán María Junta de Planificación de Puerto Rico  11/1/2018 En esta revisión al informe de 9 de marzo de 2018, se analizan e incorporan nuevos datos recopilados hasta el 10 de octubre de 2018. Para este informe, la JP estimó y revisó los impactos económicos en los diferentes sectores de la economía como resultado del huracán María de fuentes diversas. JP_ResumenEcon_201811_2_11
Hurricane Maria’s Impact on Punta Santiago, Puerto Rico: Community Needs and Mental Health Assessment Six Months Post impact Isabella M. Ferré, Stephanie Negron, James Shultz, Seth Schwartz, James P. Kossin, Hilda Pantin / Disaster Medicine and Public Health 11/5/2018 This pilot study aimed to assess the community needs and population health status for the low-income town of Punta Santiago, situated on the southeastern coast of Puerto Rico at the point where Hurricane Maria made landfall on September 20, 2017. Methods A cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey was conducted 6 months after the storm with a representative random sample of 74 households. The survey characterized population demographics and resident needs in relation to storm damage and disruption. The survey also assessed prevalence and symptom severity of major depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Results Most of Punta Santiago was without electrical power and more than half of households sustained severe damage. Residents reported loss of jobs, decreased productivity, school closures, dependency on aid for basic necessities, increased risk for vector-borne diseases, unrelenting exposure to heat and humidity, and diminished health status. Two-thirds (66.2%) of the respondents had clinically significant symptom elevations for at least 1 of the 3 common mental disorders assessed: major depression, generalized anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder. Conclusions Pilot survey results, along with other studies conducted in Punta Santiago, can be used to provide guidance for interventions with this community as well as with other low-income, storm-affected areas. 2018FERRENEGRONSHULTZETAL
ABFEs & Planning for Resilence Junta de Planificación de Puerto Rico / Oficina de Geología e Hidrología 11/15/2018 The Planning Board is the Commonwealth’s agency that, since 1978, coordinates the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) activities in Puerto Rico. PowerPoint Presentation.pdf
CALL TO ACTION: Puerto Rico Energy Policy Brief Castro-Sitiriche, Marcel J. / Native Power Research Group January 2019 More than 2,000 houses in rural communities are vulnerable to a very long power outage in the event of an intense hurricane. To prepare for a long blackout after a disaster is one of the most urgent tasks for an important sector of the population. EnergyPolicyBriefHousehold2019jan.pdf
All over the place? Differences in and consistency of excess mortality estimates in Puerto Rico after hurricane Maria Sandberg, John; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Roess, Amira1; Goldman-Hawes, Ann; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Garcia-Meza, Alejandra; Goldman, Lynn R. / Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. / Epidemiology: Volume Publish Ahead of Print 1/11/2019 Over the last year since hurricanes Irma and Maria struck Puerto Rico, a number of analyses have attempted to estimate excess mortality attributable to the storms, which few doubted was higher than the 64 official deaths the government had certified. These have generated a great deal of discussion concerning how such estimates are made and, by extension, their validity. One line of criticism, as the director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency recently stated, is that it is hard to know what is accurate because “the numbers are all over the place.” In this commentary, we discuss differences in each analysis in terms of methods employed and assumptions made. We show that, despite these differences, all analyses are generally consistent in their estimation of the mortality impact of these storms. All_over_the_place__Differences_in_and_consistency.98594
Construimos con Conciencia Junta de Planificación de Puerto Rico 1/15/2019 Una vez el foco de atención se traslade de la recuperación a la reconstrucción, las nuevas oportunidades fiscales mediante asistencias federales proveerán para la inversión en infraestructura moderna que viabilice mejores condiciones de vida y la reactivación de la economía de Puerto Rico. Presentacion Constructores sbs - PCC.pdf
Quantifying inequities in US federal response to hurricane disaster in Texas and Florida compared with Puerto Rico Charley E Willison, Phillip M Singer, Melissa S Creary, Scott L. Greer / BMJ Global Health 1/18/2019 If disaster responses vary in their effectiveness across communities, health equity is affected. This paper aims to evaluate and describe variation in the federal disaster responses to 2017 Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria, compared with the need and severity of storm damage through a retrospective analysis. Our analysis spans from landfall to 6 months after landfall for each hurricane. To examine differences in disaster responses across the hurricanes, we focus on measures of federal spending, federal resources distributed and direct and indirect storm-mortality counts. Federal spending estimates come from congressional appropriations and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) records. Resource estimates come from FEMA documents and news releases. Mortality counts come from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reports, respective vital statistics offices and news articles. Damage estimates came from NOAA reports. In each case, we compare the responses and the severity at critical time points after the storm based on FEMA time logs. Our results show that the federal government responded on a larger scale and much more quickly across measures of federal money and staffing to Hurricanes Harvey and Irma in Texas and Florida, compared with Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico. The variation in the responses was not commensurate with storm severity and need after landfall in the case of Puerto Rico compared with Texas and Florida. Assuming that disaster responses should be at least commensurate to the degree of storm severity and need of the population, the insufficient response received by Puerto Rico raises concern for growth in health disparities and increases in adverse health outcomes. e001191.full.pdf
Hurricane Maria Effects on Puerto Rico Electric Power Infrastructure Kwasinski, A.; Andrade, F.; Castro-Sitiriche, M. & O'neill-Carrillo, E. / IEEE Power and Energy Technology Systems Journal 2/19/2019 This paper discusses the effects of Hurricane Maria on Puerto Rico's electric grid. Arguably, the most signicant effect of Hurricane Maria on Puerto Rico was the electric power outage that initially affected the entire island and lasted more than ten months. Although the damage to the conventional electric power generation infrastructure was relatively minor, both the transmission and distribution portions of the grid suffered much worse damage than that observed during other hurricanes that affected the U.S. in the past decade. This extensive damage added to logistical limitations and the island orography were important factors that contributed to an extremely slow restoration process leading to a very low resilience for the island's power grid. This paper describes all these aspects in detail and supports the explanation of the hurricane effects with photographic evidence collected during a damage assessment conducted in the early December 2017 when about half of the electricity customers were still without service. This paper concludes by exploring some lessons from these observations including potential options to increase resilience, such as the use of microgrids. 08644031.pdf
Boletín CAUCE MAYOR Número 3 2019 Junta de Planificación de Puerto Rico 3/21/2019 El boletín Cauce Mayor es un medio informativo desarrollado por la Junta de Planificación para divulgar el Programa Nacional del Seguro de Inundación (NFIP, por sus siglas en inglés), de la Agencia Federal para el Manejo de Emergencias (FEMA, por sus siglas en inglés), y los Valles Inundables de Puerto Rico. Este boletín surge con la intención de educar a la ciudadanía sobre el alcance del programa NFIP, facilitar el entendimiento de la gestión de riesgos de inundación, y concientizar e impulsar la consideración del riesgo de inundación en la toma de decisiones públicas y privadas de la sociedad, entre otros. Es, además, una de las actividades elegibles bajo el Programa de Asistencia a la Comunidad (Community Assistance Program, State Support Services Element, CAP-SSSE) del año fiscal 2017 de FEMA. CAUCE MAYOR 2019 MARZO 20 LOW (003).pdf
Population of Puerto Rico not displaced by Hurricanes (for now): It’s the economy Kaneshiro, M.; McCarter, C.; Marazzi-Santiago, M. ;Santos-Lozada, A. / SocArXiv Papers / Cornell University 3/22/2019 In September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall on Puerto Rico and caused $102 billion worth of damage, demolishing the electric grid and severely impacting essential daily services that continue as of the writing of this paper. Amidst the chaos, analysts are left with few high-quality data options while making hasty estimates that have far-reaching financial impacts on resource allocation and bond prices. This paper examines historical demographic and economic data to give a long-term view of population change of Puerto Rico. First, we juxtapose population, employment, hurricanes, and significant economic events and argue that the clearest driver of population decline in Puerto Rico is simply the economic health of the island (i.e. employment). Second, focus on Pre- and Post-Hurricane Irma/Maria outmigration over recent history, highlighting the spike in out-migration immediately following past hurricanes which then are followed by return-migration. Finally, we study net outmigration and employment trends and illustrate the short-lived out-migration impacts of hurricanes while also highlighting the long-term out-migration impacts of economic downturns. In short, we argue that Puerto Ricans are not displaced by hurricanes; they are displaced by the struggling economy, and any serious plans for Puerto Rico’s restoration must include special attention to stimulating the economy. SocArXiv_PRMigHurrEcon.pdf
Revisiting the Demography of Disaster: Population Estimates After Hurricane Maria Santos-Lozada, A. / SocArXiv Papers / Cornell University 3/28/2019 Hurricane María made landfall in Puerto Rico, in September 2017, causing economic damages and affecting the population by increasing temporarily increasing mortality and outgoing passenger flow. Because of the disruption in the migration flows, the volatility of this time series we must approach the production of population estimates, projections and forecasts carefully. Given that population estimates have been difficult to produce for Puerto Rico before Hurricane Maria and even more challenging following this disaster, this paper proposes an application of the demographic balancing equation using administrative records to produce population estimates on a monthly basis for Puerto Rico. A combination of data from: (1) monthly counts for deaths and births obtained from the Puerto Rico Vital Statistics Systems, (2) passenger flow data produced by the U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics, and (3) baseline census counts. I employ this approach to produce monthly estimates of the population for Puerto Rico, and use 2010 Census counts to assess the accuracy of the model. According to the 2010 decennial census, the population of Puerto Rico was 3,725,789 people; by employing the demographic balancing equation approach, the population was estimated to be 3,669,676 people in April 1, 2010. Using this model, I find that after Hurricane Maria, the population of Puerto Rico reached less than 3 million persons in December 2017 (2.97 million). The total population went back to over 3.0 million by January 2018 with an estimated population of 3.02 million people on September 2018. Estimates_PRSocArXiv.pdf
Exposición ante desastres y salud mental entre los jóvenes de Puerto Rico después del huracán María Orengo-Aguayo R, Stewart RW, de Arellano MA, Suárez-Kindy JL, Young J. / JAMA Netw Open 4/26/2019 Pregunta: ¿Cuál fue la magnitud de la exposición ante desastres y los resultados en la salud mental de los jóvenes puertorriqueños después de huracán María? Conclusiones: Los resultados de una encuesta basada en escuelas públicas a 96 108 estudiantes revelaron que el 83.9 % vio casas dañadas, el 57.8 % tuvo un amigo o miembro de la familia que salió de la isla, el 45.7 % reportó daños en sus propios hogares, el 32.3 % experimentó escasez de alimentos o agua, el 29.9 % percibió su vida en riesgo y el 16.7 % no tuvo electricidad de 5 a 9 meses después del huracán. En general, 7.2 % de los jóvenes reportó síntomas clínicamente significativos de trastorno de estrés postraumático, con variables demográficas y de riesgo como causa de aproximadamente el 20 % de variación en los síntomas. Significado: Los jóvenes puertorriqueños experimentaron una exposición ante desastres importante y reportaron síntomas relacionados con el trauma que garantizan los servicios de salud mental basados en la evidencia. orengoaguayo_2019_oi_190117
Population Loss and School Closures in Puerto Rico. Jennifer Hinojosa, Edwin Meléndez, and Kathya Serevino Pietri / The Center for Puerto Rican Studies May 2019 According to the 2018 U.S. Census Bureau’s Population Estimates, Puerto Rico’s population is 3.1 million, having declined 4% since 2017 (3.2 million). This is the first official estimate by the U.S. Census Bureau since Hurricane Maria struck Puerto Rico on September 20th, 2017. Since Hurricane Maria, migration has intensified, especially among adults and the children accompanying them (family units), and this pattern shifted the Island’s demographic structure. This declining population has had a series of social and demographic impacts, such as increasing vacancy rates for housing units, lower growth rates in child population, and school closures throughout the Island. centro_rb2019-01_cor
Ayuda Provista por las Comunidades Religiosas en Puerto Rico después de los Huracanes Irma y María Yerís H. Mayol-García, Alexis R. Santos-Lozada & Doris J. García Rivera / Seminario Evangélivo de Puerto Rico May 2019 El objetivo principal de este reporte es documentar las ayudas provistas por las iglesias afiliadas al Seminario Evangélico de Puerto Rico, tanto a sus feligreses como al público en general luego del paso de los huracanes Irma y María del 2017 en Puerto Rico. Este estudio se lleva a cabo bajo la supervisión y con autorización del Institutional Review Board en Pennsylvania State University. AyudasIglesiasPR_2019
Puerto Rico’s population declined sharply after hurricanes Maria and Irma Flores, A. & Manuel-Krogstad, J. / Pew Research Center July 2019 The population of Puerto Rico stood at 3.2 million in 2018, its lowest point since 1979 and down sharply from 2017, when hurricanes Maria and Irma hit the island, according to the analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data. The 3.9% decline in 2018 represents the largest year-to-year drop since 1950, the first year for which annual data is available. puerto-rico-population-2018
Manual de mitigación de riesgos y desastres para Puerto Rico Torrech-San Inocencio, Rafael A. / The Center for Puerto Rican Studies / Instituto de Desarrollo Empresarial y Acción Comunitaria - IDEAComún Juio 2019 El concepto básico de la mitigación de riesgos es muy familiar en Puerto Rico. Desde las tormenteras piramidales de zinc de nuestros campos hasta los grandes castillos edificados del Viejo San Juan, por muchos siglos la mitigación de riesgos ha sido un consideración prioritaria en la vida cotidiana de los puertorriqueños. El castillo San Felipe del Morro, por ejemplo, fue diseñado y utilizado como refugio para la población de la isleta da San Juan durante huracanes y asedios enemigos. En sus bóvedas hubo depósitos de agua potable, carne y pescado, y la valiosa sal requerida para su preservación, entre otros. Así que al abordar el concepto de mitigación de riesgos, nos hacemos eco de una previsión pública a desastres que ha persistido a lo largo de nuestra historia. Manual de Mitigación - Dr. Rafael Torrech, IDEAComún



Mapas Interactivos




OnTheMap for Emergency Management OnTheMap for Emergency Management is a public data tool that provides an intuitive web-based interface for accessing U.S. population and workforce statistics, in real time, for areas being affected by natural disasters. The tool allows users to retrieve reports containing detailed workforce, population, and housing characteristics for hurricanes, floods, wildfires, winter storms, and federal disaster declaration areas. https://onthemap.ces.census.gov/em/
Central Office for Recovery, Reconstructrion and Resiliency Portal de transparencia es una herramienta y representación visual del desglose de los fondos del Programa de Asistencia Pública de FEMA y otros fondos federales disponibles. https://recovery.pr/
Crowdsourced Organizaciones/Colectivos comunitarios para donaciones en Puerto Rico https://www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/viewer?mid=1vAoC2a0ROKKsy_lhvgSUa4hLU_I&ll=18.323893994705223%2C-66.32656574999999&z=8
Departamento de Educación (DE) Mapa elaborado por el Instituto de Estadisticas de Puerto Rico. Este muestra las escuelas abiertas según los datos provistos por el Departamento de Educación https://www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/viewer?mid=1NX7mFbE1yq1JPT4CdLyynP39Vh4&ll=18.239866845671312%2C-66.57072&z=10
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Refugios en Puerto Rico https://find-shelter.connect.socrata.com/?is_widget=true&hide_chrome=false#!/dashboard?places=FEMA%20Shelters&categories=&start_date=2017-08-04&
Google Alertas de lluvias, tráfico y noticias http://google.org/crisismap/google.com/2017-maria-es
Healthcare Ready Farmacias Abiertas https://www.healthcareready.org/rxopen
National Alliance for Public Safety GIS Foundation (NAPSG) "Story Map Series" diseñado para proporcionar una visión general de la información geoespacial disponible tanto de fuentes gubernamentales como de datos "crowdsourced". http://napsg.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapSeries/index.html?appid=cbbe9a23343d476c950567c79d4c77dc
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) / Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) - Caribbean Herramienta web de GIS que ayuda tanto al personal de manejo de emergencias como a los administradores de recursos ambientales a lidiar con incidentes.


ERMA is web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and enviromental resource managers in dealing with incidents that may adversely impact the environment. ERMA integrates various real-time and static datasets into a single interactive map, thus provides fast visualization of the situation and improves communication and coordination among responders and environmental stakeholders.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Recopilación de imágenes del Huracán María http://storms.ngs.noaa.gov/storms/maria/index.html#7/18.056/-64.824
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Hurricane Center (NOAA/NHC) Trayectoria del Huracán María https://www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/viewer?mid=1ftpSdgMTdd7ssXZFQp-A210_Dfg&hl=en&ll=18.113223872027017%2C-66.13014221718748&z=9
Patrulla Aérea Civil (FEMA NOAA) Recopilación de imágenes aéreas luego del Huracán María http://imageryuploader.geoplatform.gov/ImageEventsPublic/map.html#
United States Geological Service (USGS) Visualizador de inundaciones https://stn.wim.usgs.gov/fev/#MariaSeptember2017



Fuentes de Información




BoriBnB Viviendas voluntarias de emergencia para los puertorriqueños y otras isleñas del Caribe afectadas por los huracanes María e Irma. https://boricuabnb.org/
Connect Relief Información recopilada por medio de la aplicación móvil de Connect Relief. El propósito es visualizar las necesidades identificadas por municipio de procedencia y ofrecer una aproximación de la ayuda necesaria. https://connectrelief.com/datos
Crowd Resque HQ Estado de infraestructura y terreno https://survey123.arcgis.com/share/f9fec73d14f2442aa110d5879ae842c0
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Este conjunto de datos representa el inventario de puentes ubicados en las vías públicas de Puerto Rico https://datos.estadisticas.pr/dataset/national-bridge-inventory
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Este portal proporciona datos geoespaciales de fuentes autorizadas que pueden ser útiles para apoyar la respuesta de la comunidad y la recuperación ante el huracán Irma. Los datos están disponibles para su descarga en formato CSV, KML, Shapefile y accesibles a través de servicios web para permitir el desarrollo de aplicaciones y la visualización de datos. https://respond-irma-geoplatform.opendata.arcgis.com/
Digital Globe Portal de datos abiertos de Digital Globe, incluye datos vectoriales e imágenes pre y post evento http://blog.digitalglobe.com/news/open-data-for-hurricane-maria-relief-efforts/
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Actualizaciones de la EPA respecto al huracán Maria, personal, manejo de aguas residuales, seguridad del agua y manejo de desechos https://response.epa.gov/site/site_profile.aspx?site_id=12403
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Informes de estado de comunicaciones, avisos públicos, comunicados de prensa, declaraciones y presentaciones, regulaciones. https://www.fcc.gov/maria
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) GIS data del huracán María: contorno de edificios, evaluación de daños, demografía, cuadrícula de profundidad, percepción remota, transportación y vientos https://data.femadata.com/NationalDisasters/HurricaneMaria/Data/
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Portal con información sobre asistencia financiera https://www.fema.gov/es/disaster/4339


Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Página principal de recursos actualizados e información sobre la respuesta federal al huracán María. https://www.fema.gov/hurricane-maria#


General Services Administration (GSA) Estado e información de establecimientos en Puerto Rico luego del huracán Maria https://www.gsa.gov/governmentwide-initiatives/emergency-response/facilities-status-and-information-overview
Gobierno de Puerto Rico Portal gubernamental sobre el status de recuperación de las instalaciones e infraestructura física y tecnológica. http://status.pr/
National Insurance Crime Bureau Página de fotos aéreas y satelitales de PR y otras zonas afectadas por huracanes en el 2017, incluyendo una herramienta para comparar antes y después en el caso de María. https://www.nicb.org/node/1002
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Archivo de datos meteorológicos de los huracanes que han afectado a Puerto Rico desde 1851 https://datos.estadisticas.pr/dataset/huracanes
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Imagenes del huracan Maria http://storms.ngs.noaa.gov/storms/maria/index.html#7/18.056/-64.824
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Hurricane Center (NOAA NHC) GIS data para el huracán María: Pronóstico de ruta, cono de incertidumbre, archivos de alerta http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/gis/archive_forecast_results.php?id=al15&year=2017&name=Hurricane%20MARIA
Servicio Nacional de Meteorología de San Juan(NWS San Juan) y National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Vídeo con fotos aéreas de varios lugares en Puerto Rico antes y después del paso del huracán María por la isla en septiembre 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y8niFuk75cc&feature=youtu.be
Tecnetico Herramienta para verificar que celulares son compatibles con la señal que emiten los globos Loon de Google https://www.tecnetico.com/conectividad/celular-compatible-globos-loon-puerto-rico/65853
US Department of Energy (DOE) Informes actualizados diariamente con detalles sobre los impactos del huracán Maria y las actividades de recuperación y restauración de la industria energética. https://energy.gov/oe/downloads/hurricanes-maria-irma-and-harvey-situation-reports
United States Geological Service (USGS) Portal de datos y herramientas relacionadas al huracán Maria https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/hurricane-maria/data-tools
Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña División de Educación de la Comunidad. Documental - Huracán (1958). Dirección - Benjamin Doniger. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A0ATfNIposk